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浙江快乐12:从特朗普胜选看美国文化及身份认同政治

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本文摘要:The election of Donald Trump has triggered a thousand questions and much soul searching about America and the future of the west. 唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)被选为引起了人们的重重疑惑和深刻反思,有些问题是关于美国的,有些问题是关于西方的未来的。

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The election of Donald Trump has triggered a thousand questions and much soul searching about America and the future of the west. 唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)被选为引起了人们的重重疑惑和深刻反思,有些问题是关于美国的,有些问题是关于西方的未来的。Here are my initial takeaways based on five days in New York, including election night.以下是我在纽约停留五天(还包括议会选举之夜)得出结论的可行性结论。1) Cultural and identity politics are the common thread of instability running through the world right now.1)文化及身份尊重政治是当今世界不稳定局势的联合主线。

From Donald Trump’s triumph to Brexit and the rise of a new caliphate in the Middle East, the tension is likely to get worse before it gets better. 从唐纳德.特朗普在美国议会选举中获得胜利到英国干欧和中东新的哈里发的兴起,紧张局势可能会之后好转,然后才未来将会恶化。In the US, Trump played on middle class and working class fears about immigration and cultural nostalgia for a bygone era in America. 在美国,特朗普利用了中产和工薪阶层对移民的不安和对一个消逝时代的文化浪漫。He brilliantly exploited anger about political correctness, especially among elites, including the mainstream media. 他顺利地利用了民众对政治准确、尤其是精英阶层(还包括主流媒体)的政治准确的气愤。

Ultimately, as in Brexit Britain, identity politics may have trumped pocketbook politics.最后,如脱欧的英国一样,身份尊重政治(identity politics)也许不会战胜钱包政治(pocketbook politics)。2) The anti-globalisation movement is growing.2)反全球化运动风头日盛。Mr Trump’s anti-free trade rhetoric was not challenged by Hillary Clinton. 特朗普的反自由贸易言论没受到希拉里.克林顿(Hillary Clinton)的挑战。

The elites, including the media, have become complacent about globalisation, failing to grasp the importance of defending the postwar liberal order, institutions and treaties which have underpinned growth and prosperity. 还包括媒体在内的精英阶层对全球化深感沾沾自喜,他们没明白确保战后权利秩序、制度和条约——它们是快速增长和兴旺的基础——的重要性。Illiberal democrats such as Marine Le Pen in France and the AfD in Germany will take heart ahead of elections in 2017. 反权利的民主主义者,如法国的马琳.勒庞(Marine Le Pen)和德国新的自由选择党(AfD),将在2017年议会选举前受到激励。Trump has shown that populism is not just framing the debate, it can win. 特朗普早已证明,民粹主义不仅正在左右辩论,而且还可以获得胜利。

The unthinkable is now possible.以往不可想象的情况,现在已显得有可能。3) The parallels between Donald Trump and Ronald Reagan are overdone.3)将唐纳德.特朗普与罗纳德.里根(Ronald Reagan)相提并论有些过了。Trump has no previous political experience and he is a creature of reality TV and the moment. 特朗普没什么从政经验,他是电视真人秀和当下时代的产物。

By the time he became president, Ronald Reagan had been a two-time governor of California and a trade union organiser in Hollywood. 里根就职总统前,当过两届加利福尼亚州州长,还曾是好莱坞的一名工会组织者。When he won the White House in 1980, Reagan had a political philosophy. 1980年在总统议会选举中获得胜利时,里根已构成了自己的政治哲学。He was the political leader of a low-tax, small-government movement. 他是一场主张较低税、小政府的运动的政治领袖。Mr Trump said in his victory speech that he too was head of a movement (not, interestingly, a party), but many of his positions on the economy and foreign policy are incoherent, contradictory and inherently high-risk.特朗普在胜选演讲中也说道他是一场运动(有意思的是,并非某个政党)的领袖,但他许多关于经济和外交政策的立场不完全一致、互相对立,从本质上来说充满著风险。

4) There are huge questions about a Trump administration’s foreign policy.4)关于特朗普政府的外交政策不存在许多大问题。Mr Trump loves to be liked, and his five favourite words are: The art of the deal. 特朗普讨厌被人讨厌,他最喜欢的五个字是:交易的艺术(The art of the deal)。

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7) Trump destroyed two political dynasties (Bush and Clinton) and threatens to blow up Washington.7)特朗普毁坏了两个政治世家(布什和克林顿),并威胁要搅翻华盛顿。Now he must show if he is capable of playing a new role: the builder. 现在他必需证明,他否需要扮演着好新的角色:建设者。The real estate mogul and political neophyte defied convention in every respect. 这位房地产大亨、政治新手在各方面都超越了传统。He rewrote the rules of campaigning, spent next to nothing on TV advertising and relied on brand Trump and a simple message: Make America great again. 他改写了竞选规则,完全没花钱在电视做广告,他就依赖特朗普这支品牌和一条非常简单的口号:让美国再度最出色。

The business of government will involve much harder choices and priorities. 政府事务将牵涉到更加艰苦的自由选择和优先排序。He must work with Congress through the Republican majorities in the House and Senate. 他要凭借共和党在参众两院取得的多数议席与国会合作。

Mike Pence, his vice-president and a former congressman, will play a leading role, maybe even as influential as Dick Cheney. 他的副总统、前国会议员迈克.彭斯(Mike Pence)将扮演着一个主要角色,其影响力甚至有可能与迪克.切尼(Dick Cheney)相若。We know Trump can play showman-in-chief, but he must now show, in terms of temperament and judgment, that he is ready to become commander-in-chief.我们告诉,特朗普可以扮演着好总作秀官(showman-in-chief),但他现在必需证明,在性情脾气和辨别方面,他准备好了兼任总指挥。

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